Article 102 of NAFTA sets out the purpose of NAFTA. There were/there are seven concrete objectives. A study published in the August 2008 issue of the American Journal of Agricultural Economics found that NAFTA increased U.S. agricultural exports to Mexico and Canada, even though most of the increase occurred a decade after its ratification. The study focused on the impact that progressive periods of “phased implementation” of regional trade agreements, including NAFTA, have on trade flows. Most of the increase in Members` agricultural trade, which only recently fell under the jurisdiction of the World Trade Organization, was due to very high barriers to trade prior to NAFTA or other regional trade agreements.  NAFTA also requires the three countries to trade foreign investment as favourably with each other as domestic investment. For example, under the agreement, the United States could not require Mexican investors to hold more stakes in a company than a U.S. investor. These countries are also not allowed to use nationality as a basis for selling or preventing investment in their country. Under this provision, all countries that claim that a government that has signed the agreement has violated the provision may seek arbitration from the World Bank`s International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, the ICSID Rules for an Additional Facility, the Rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law or a national court in their country.  Another contentious issue was the investor-state dispute settlement obligations set out in Chapter 11 of NAFTA.  Chapter 11 allowed companies or individuals to sue Mexico, Canada or the United States for compensation if the actions of those governments (or those for which they are responsible under international law, such as provincial, state or local governments) violated international law.
 On August 27, 2018, Trump and Mexico entered into a bilateral trade agreement to replace NAFTA and threatened to exclude Canada. Canada joined on September 30, 2018. On 30 November 2018, an agreement was reached between the three countries. The new agreement is called an agreement between the United States, Mexico and Canada and has been ratified by each country`s legislature. Mexico ratified it on 19 June 2019. The United States ratified the agreement on January 29, 2020. The Canadian Parliament ratified the USMCA on March 13, 2020. According to Chad Bown of the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the Trump administration`s list “aligns very well with the president`s position of liking trade barriers and loving protectionism. In many ways, this makes NAFTA less of a free trade agreement.  The concerns expressed by the U.S.
Trade Representative about subsidized state-owned enterprises and currency manipulation do not apply to Canada and Mexico, but are intended to send a message to countries outside North America.  Jeffrey Schott of the Peterson Institute for International Economics noted that it would not be possible to conclude the renegotiations quickly while addressing all the concerns on the list.  He also said that anything would be difficult to do to address trade deficits.  If the original Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) had entered into force, existing agreements, such as NAFTA, would be reduced to provisions that do not conflict with the TPP or require greater trade liberalization than the TPP.  However, only Canada and Mexico have the prospect of becoming members of the TPP after the United States. President Donald Trump withdrew the United States from the agreement in January 2017. In May 2017, the remaining 11 TPP members, including Canada and Mexico, agreed to proceed with a revised version of the trade agreement without U.S. participation.  The momentum for a North American free trade area began with U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who incorporated the idea into his campaign when he announced his candidacy for president in November 1979.  Canada and the United States signed the Canada-U.S.
Free Trade Agreement in 1988, and shortly thereafter, Mexican President Carlos Salinas de Gortari decided to address U.S. President George H. W. Bush to propose a similar agreement to attract foreign investment after the Latin American debt crisis.  When the two leaders began negotiations, the Canadian government led by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney was concerned that the benefits That Canada had derived from the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement would be undermined by a bilateral agreement between the United States and Mexico and asked to participate in the U.S.-Mexico talks.  A fourth round of talks included a U.S. request for a sunset clause that would terminate the deal in five years unless the three countries agreed to maintain it, a provision that U.S. Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross said would allow countries to terminate the deal if it didn`t work. Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau met with the House Ways and Means Committee because Congress is expected to pass a bill that would nullify the treaty provisions if Trump tried to withdraw from the pact.
 Although NAFTA is about trade, not immigration, Cameron believes the latter issue has haunted the 25 years of the agreement`s existence. The passage of NAFTA follows years of trade negotiations between U.S. President George H. W. Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and Mexican President Carlos Salinas. These three leaders signed a trade agreement in 1992, but the agreement had to be ratified by each country`s legislation before it could enter into force.